Defending Against Truancy Cases in Colorado

Truancy cases can be a daunting challenge for both students and their parents, often resulting in legal consequences that may have a lasting impact on a child’s education and future. In Colorado, the laws regarding truancy are designed to ensure regular school attendance, emphasizing the importance of education in a child’s development. However, there are situations where defending against a truancy case becomes necessary. In this article, we will explore the legal landscape of truancy in Colorado and provide guidance on how to mount a robust defense.

Understanding Colorado Truancy Laws:

Colorado defines truancy as the habitual absence of a student from school without a legitimate excuse. The state mandates that children between the ages of six and seventeen attend school, either public, private, or home-based. Parents or legal guardians are responsible for ensuring their child’s regular attendance.

Key Considerations for Defending Against Truancy:

  1. Know Your Rights and Responsibilities: Understanding both the rights and responsibilities of students and parents is crucial when facing a truancy case. Familiarize yourself with the specific attendance policies of your child’s school and be aware of any legitimate excuses for absences, such as illness or family emergencies.
  2. Document Legitimate Excuses: Keeping thorough documentation of legitimate reasons for your child’s absences is essential. This may include doctor’s notes, medical records, or other official documents that verify the validity of the reasons behind the missed school days. Having a well-documented trail can strengthen your defense significantly.
  3. Open Communication with the School: Establishing open communication with your child’s school is essential. If your child is facing challenges that affect attendance, such as health issues or bullying, inform the school promptly. Schools are often willing to work with parents to find solutions that benefit the student’s well-being and education.
  4. Individualized Education Plans (IEPs) and 504 Plans: If your child has special needs, an Individualized Education Plan (IEP) or a 504 Plan may be in place. These plans outline specific accommodations and services to support students with disabilities. If the truancy issue is related to your child’s special needs, ensure that the school is providing the necessary support outlined in these plans.
  5. Legal Representation: In more complex truancy cases, seeking legal representation is advisable. An attorney with experience in education law can provide valuable insights, navigate the legal process, and ensure that your rights are protected. Legal representation becomes especially crucial if the case progresses to court.
  6. Addressing Root Causes: To prevent future truancy issues, address any underlying causes contributing to your child’s absences. This may involve seeking counseling or other support services, working with the school on a plan for improvement, or exploring alternative educational options that better suit your child’s needs.
  7. Attend Court Proceedings: If the truancy case reaches the court, attending all court proceedings is essential. Your active participation demonstrates your commitment to addressing the issue and finding a resolution. Be prepared to present the documentation and evidence supporting your case.


Defending against a truancy case in Colorado requires a proactive and strategic approach. Understanding the legal landscape, knowing your rights, and documenting legitimate excuses are critical steps in building a strong defense. Open communication with the school, addressing any underlying issues, and seeking legal representation when necessary, can significantly improve your chances of a favorable outcome.

Remember that each truancy case is unique, and the specific circumstances will influence the most effective defense strategy. By staying informed, communicating effectively, and seeking appropriate support, you can navigate the complexities of a truancy case in Colorado and work towards a positive resolution for your child’s education and future.

Contempt in Colorado: A Comprehensive Examination, Emphasizing Punitive and Remedial Contempt

In the realm of Colorado’s legal system, civil contempt stands as a vital tool for ensuring adherence to court orders. This article delves into the nuances of civil contempt, elucidating its definition, essential components, and the legal procedures involved. Additionally, we will explore the unique burden of proof associated with punitive contempt, along with the distinctions between punitive and remedial contempt and their significance in the Colorado legal framework.

Defining Civil Contempt in Colorado:

Civil contempt, as per Colorado law, is a mechanism designed to enforce compliance with court orders, applicable to both family and non-family law cases. It addresses issues such as child custody arrangements, visitation schedules, spousal support, and property division.

Key Elements of Civil Contempt in Colorado:

Initiating civil contempt proceedings in Colorado requires specific elements to ensure fairness and adherence to the law. The key components include:

  1. Clear and Specific Court Order:
    • A valid and unambiguous court order about matters like child support or visitation rights is a prerequisite.
  2. Knowledge of the Order:
    • The alleged contemnor must be aware of the court order’s terms and conditions, indicating willful non-compliance.
  3. Willful Non-Compliance:
    • The failure to comply must be deliberate and intentional, constituting a willful violation of the court order.
  4. Ability to Comply:
    • The alleged contemnor must have the means to comply with the court order, and if circumstances beyond their control hinder compliance, contempt may not apply.

Legal Procedures for Civil Contempt in Colorado:

Navigating civil contempt proceedings in Colorado follows a set of defined legal procedures:

  1. Filing a Motion for Contempt:
    • The aggrieved party initiates the process by filing a motion, providing evidence supporting the claim of contempt.
  2. Notice to the Alleged Contemnor:
    • Proper notice, including the motion, hearing details, and information on their rights, is served to the alleged contemnor.
  3. Contempt Hearing:
    • A hearing allows both parties to present their cases, enabling the alleged contemnor to explain actions and present defenses.
  4. Burden of Proof:
    • The party seeking contempt bears the burden of proving, by clear and convincing evidence, the willful violation of a court order.
  5. Possible Remedies:
    • Remedies may include fines, sanctions, attorney’s fees, or modifications to existing court orders, determined by the court’s findings.
  6. Purging Contempt:
    • The court may offer a chance to purge contempt by taking specific actions to comply with the court order.
  7. Appeal Process:
    • Both parties have the right to appeal, ensuring a review of the trial court’s findings and upholding the principles of a fair and just legal process.

Distinguishing Punitive and Remedial Contempt:

Colorado recognizes two primary types of civil contempt: punitive and remedial.

  1. Punitive Contempt:
    • Aimed at punishing the contemnor for disobedience.
    • Involves fines or imprisonment as a penalty.
    • Focuses on vindicating the authority of the court.
    • Carries a specific burden of proof to establish the contemnor’s wrongful intent and willful disobedience.
  2. Remedial Contempt:
    • Aims at compelling compliance with the court order.
    • Sanctions are imposed to encourage future compliance.
    • Can involve coercive measures, such as fines, to prompt adherence to the court’s directives.


Civil contempt in Colorado is integral to maintaining the integrity of court orders. Understanding its nuances, along with the distinctions between punitive and remedial contempt, is crucial for those navigating the state’s legal landscape. As legal dynamics evolve, staying informed ensures a just application of the law and the protection of individual rights.

Understanding the Differences Between PRE and CFI in Child Custody Cases

Child custody disputes can be emotionally charged and complex legal matters that require careful consideration of the best interests of the children involved. To assist in these cases, the court often calls upon the expertise of professionals such as Parental Responsibilities Evaluators (PRE) and Child and Family Investigators (CFI). These professionals play pivotal roles in helping courts make informed decisions about child custody arrangements. In this article, we will explore the key differences between PREs and CFIs, their roles, qualifications, and the types of cases for which each expert might be best suited.

The Role of the Parental Responsibilities Evaluator (PRE):

A Parental Responsibilities Evaluator is an individual with specialized training in psychology, psychiatry, or a related field at the doctorate level, appointed by the court to assess and make recommendations regarding parental responsibilities in child custody cases. Their role is extensive and includes the following:

Comprehensive Assessment: PREs conduct in-depth assessments of the parents, children, and the family situation. This assessment may involve psychological evaluations, interviews, and observations to gain a deep understanding of the family dynamics.

Psychological Testing: PREs are qualified to perform psychological tests to evaluate the mental and emotional well-being of the parties involved. This can provide critical insights into the capacity of each parent to provide a stable and nurturing environment for the child.

Observation and Interaction Analysis: PREs often observe interactions between parents and children, either directly or through video recordings. They analyze these interactions to assess the quality of the parent-child relationships.

Consideration of Relevant Factors: In addition to the direct assessments, PREs take into account various factors such as the child’s age and developmental needs, the parents’ abilities to meet those needs, the child’s preferences, and any history of abuse or neglect.

Recommendation Report: Following the assessment, the PRE submits a detailed report to the court. This report includes findings, conclusions, and recommendations for the court to consider when determining custody arrangements.

Cost: A PRE investigation can be quite costly with many investigations exceeding $5,000-10,000 on average depending on the number of interviews conducted, assessments performed, and issues presented.  Cost can oftentimes be the driving factor in whether a family can request a PRE investigation.

The Role of the Child and Family Investigator (CFI):

A Child and Family Investigator is another neutral third party appointed by the court to investigate child custody and parenting time disputes. While the CFI’s role shares some similarities with that of a PRE, there are notable differences:

Information Gathering: CFIs focus on gathering information about the family, parents, and children through interviews, document reviews, and other investigative means. They aim to present a less invasive overview of the case to the court through the lens of a particular scope of investigation.

Recommendations for Best Interests: Similar to PREs, CFIs make recommendations to the court regarding the best interests of the child. However, their recommendations may be more limited as a CFI’s investigative scope is oftentimes very specific to questions posed by the court versus a more comprehensive look at the entire family.

Interviews and Observations: CFIs interview parents, children, and other relevant parties, as well as observe interactions between the child and parents or caregivers. These observations contribute to their recommendations, but the CFI cannot conduct drug and alcohol evaluations, domestic violence assessments, or administer drug testing absent direction from the court and particular qualifications to do so.

Focused Investigation: CFIs often conduct a more focused investigation, seeking to address specific issues or disputes in the custody case. Their role is less psychological compared to PREs who are able to evaluate parties and children to provide indicators regarding potential mental health or addiction concerns.

Qualifications and Expertise:

One of the key differences between PREs and CFIs is the level of qualifications and expertise required for these roles:

PREs: These professionals are typically licensed psychologists or psychiatrists with advanced training in child development, family dynamics, and mental health assessments. Their qualifications equip them to perform psychological testing and assessments, making them well-suited to cases involving complex dynamics.

CFIs: While CFIs may have backgrounds in fields such as law, counseling, or social work, their training is focused on child development, child abuse and neglect issues, domestic violence or coercive control elements, and methods of interviewing children effectively. They do not conduct psychological assessments or tests and must notify the court if they believe such testing is requisite. 

Types of Cases for PREs and CFIs:

The choice between a PRE and a CFI often depends on the specific needs of the case, the financial resources of the family, and the preferences of the court. Here are some considerations for which expert might be best suited for different types of child custody cases:


Complex Psychological Issues: When a child custody case involves complex psychological issues, such as mental health concerns or allegations of parental alienation, a PRE’s expertise is invaluable. They can assess the mental and emotional well-being of the parties involved as well as the children.

High-Conflict Cases: In high-conflict custody disputes where there is a history of domestic violence, child abuse or neglect, substance abuse, or criminal activity, a PRE’s comprehensive assessment can provide critical insights for the court.


Information Gathering and Fact-Finding: In cases where the primary need is to gather information about the parties involved and the family situation, but there are no complex psychological issues, a CFI can efficiently conduct a thorough investigation with less cost to the family than a PRE.

Focused Investigations: CFIs are suitable for cases with specific disputes or concerns that require fact-finding and recommendations, such as disputes over parenting time schedules or allegations of parenting or decision-making violations.

Interview-Based Assessment: When questions can be resolved through a review of evidence and interviews with the family and third parties, a CFI is well-suited to the task.


Parental Responsibilities Evaluators (PREs) and Child and Family Investigators (CFIs) both play vital roles in helping the court make informed decisions in child custody cases. The choice between the two often hinges on the nature and complexity of the case. PREs are experts in psychology and mental health, conducting in-depth assessments and psychological evaluations, while CFIs are investigative professionals who gather information, conduct interviews, and make recommendations based on their findings.

In any child custody case, the ultimate goal is to ensure the best interests of the child are met. By understanding the roles and qualifications of PREs and CFIs, a party can better decide what expert may be necessary to protect their children’s best interests in the court process.

Understanding Annulment in Colorado: Grounds and Legal Implications

In the realm of family law, annulment stands as a distinct legal concept, separate from divorce. While divorce terminates a valid marriage, an annulment declares a marriage null and void, as if it never existed in the first place. Colorado, like many other states, has specific grounds and procedures for obtaining an annulment. This article aims to shed light on what an annulment is, the grounds for seeking one in Colorado, and the legal implications involved.

What is an Annulment?

An annulment is a legal process that declares a marriage null and void. Unlike divorce, which acknowledges the existence of a valid marriage that is being terminated, an annulment treats the marriage as if it never happened. Essentially, an annulment retroactively voids the marriage, restoring both parties to their pre-marriage legal status.

Grounds for Annulment in Colorado

In Colorado, obtaining an annulment involves demonstrating that the marriage is void or voidable based on specific grounds. The grounds for annulment in the state can be broadly categorized into void and voidable marriages.

1. Void Marriages:

Certain marriages are considered void from the outset, meaning they are legally invalid, and no formal annulment procedure is required. The following scenarios constitute void marriages in Colorado:

a. Bigamy: If one of the parties is already married at the time of the second marriage, the subsequent marriage is void.

b. Incest: Marriages between close blood relatives, such as siblings or parents and children, are void in Colorado.c. Underage Marriage: If one or both parties were underage at the time of marriage and did not obtain the necessary legal consent, the marriage is void.

c. Underage Marriage: If one or both parties were underage at the time of marriage and did not obtain the necessary legal consent, the marriage is void.

2. Voidable Marriages:

Unlike void marriages, voidable marriages are considered valid until annulled. A voidable marriage may be annulled based on certain grounds, but it is not automatically void. Grounds for a voidable marriage in Colorado include:

a. Lack of Capacity: If one or both parties lacked the mental capacity to consent to the marriage, the court may consider the marriage voidable.

b. Fraud or Duress: If the consent to marriage was obtained through fraud or duress, the injured party may seek an annulment.

c. Impotence: If one party is unable to consummate the marriage, and the other party was unaware of this fact at the time of marriage, it may be considered a ground for annulment.

d. Lack of Consent: If one party entered into the marriage without genuine consent, perhaps due to intoxication or force, the marriage may be voidable.e.

e.Concealed Divorce: If one party concealed a previous divorce at the time of marriage, the other party may seek annulment.

Legal Implications of Annulment

While annulment erases the legal existence of a marriage, it does not absolve the parties from addressing issues such as property division, alimony, and child custody. The court may still need to make determinations on these matters, particularly if there are shared assets or children involved.

  1. Property Division: In Colorado, the court may still need to address the division of property acquired during the marriage. Even though the marriage is annulled, the court will ensure a fair and equitable distribution of assets and debts.
  2. Alimony: The issue of spousal support, or alimony, may also arise in annulment cases, especially if one party relied on the other for financial support during the marriage. The court will consider factors such as financial need and the duration of the marriage when determining alimony.
  3. Child Custody and Support: If the parties have children from the annulled marriage, the court will decide on matters of child custody, visitation, and support based on the best interests of the child.


Annulment in Colorado is a legal process that declares a marriage null and void, erasing it from legal existence. The grounds for annulment include void marriages, such as bigamy and incest, and voidable marriages, where issues like lack of capacity, fraud, or impotence come into play. While an annulment negates the marriage, legal issues such as property division, alimony, and child custody may still need to be addressed. It’s crucial for individuals seeking an annulment in Colorado to understand the specific grounds and navigate the legal process with the assistance of legal professionals to ensure a fair resolution.

The Holidays Post-Divorce: A Guide to Parenting Time in Colorado

The holiday season is often filled with joy, warmth, and the spirit of togetherness. However, for divorced parents, it can also bring a sense of uncertainty and potential conflict when it comes to parenting time arrangements. In Colorado, as in many other states, divorced parents must navigate the complexities of holiday parenting time. In this article, we will explore the guidelines, tips, and considerations for successfully managing parenting time around the holidays post-divorce in the beautiful state of Colorado.

Legal Framework in Colorado

In Colorado, parenting time arrangements post-divorce are determined based on the best interests of the child. While the specifics of parenting time can vary from case to case, the state provides guidelines to help parents create a framework for their parenting plans.

Parenting Plan: Colorado law mandates that parents create a comprehensive parenting plan as part of their divorce proceedings. This plan outlines various aspects of parenting, including the allocation of parenting time and decision-making responsibilities. It should include details regarding how holidays and special occasions will be handled.

Court Approval: For parenting time arrangements to be legally binding, they must be approved by the court. Courts typically prefer parents to reach an agreement on their own, but they can step in and make decisions if an agreement is not possible.

Holidays and Special Occasions: Colorado’s legal framework recognizes the importance of maintaining stability and meaningful relationships for the child, especially during the holiday season. Therefore, parenting plans should specify how holidays and special occasions will be divided between the parents.

Common Approaches to Holiday Parenting Time

In Colorado, as in many other states, there are several common approaches to dividing holiday parenting time. These approaches aim to strike a balance between allowing the child to spend quality time with both parents while ensuring stability during the holiday season. Some of the common methods include:

Alternating Holidays: One common approach is to alternate holidays every year. For example, in year one, the child might spend Thanksgiving with one parent and Christmas with the other, and then switch the following year. This approach provides a fair distribution of holiday time between both parents.

Splitting the Day: In some cases, parents may agree to split the holiday itself. This could mean that the child spends the morning with one parent and the afternoon and evening with the other. This approach allows the child to enjoy special moments with both parents during the holiday.

Extended Visitation: Another approach is for one parent to have extended visitation during the holiday season. For example, the child might spend the entire winter break with one parent, and the other parent could have extended visitation during the summer break. This approach allows the child to have an uninterrupted holiday experience with one parent.

Tips for Co-Parenting During the Holidays

Co-parenting during the holiday season can be challenging, but with the right approach and a commitment to your child’s well-being, it can be a successful and positive experience. Here are some tips to help divorced parents in Colorado navigate the holiday season:

Plan Ahead: Start discussing holiday parenting time well in advance of the holiday season. This gives both parents time to reach an agreement and make necessary arrangements.

Communicate Effectively: Open and honest communication is key. Discuss your expectations, preferences, and concerns with your co-parent. Be flexible and willing to compromise for the benefit of your child.

Be Child-Centered: Always prioritize your child’s well-being and happiness. Consider their age, preferences, and emotional needs when making holiday arrangements. Keep the focus on creating positive holiday memories for your child.

When in Doubt, Follow the Parenting Plan: If you have a court-approved parenting plan, adhere to it unless you have a clear alternate agreement established in writing with your Co-Parent. Consistency and avoidance of unnecessary conflict are essential for your child’s stability and security, especially during the holidays.

Create New Traditions: Embrace the opportunity to create new traditions and special moments with your child during the holidays. These can help make the holiday season feel special and unique, even in a co-parenting situation.

Avoid Competing with Your Co-Parent: It’s important not to compete with your co-parent for your child’s affection or attention during the holidays. Encourage your child to enjoy their time with the other parent and avoid making negative comments.

Coordinate Gifts and Celebrations: If you have a peaceful enough relationship with your Co-Parent, coordinate gift-giving and holiday celebrations to avoid redundancy. This can help prevent conflicts and ensure a smoother holiday experience for your child.  Some Co-Parents function more peacefully through parallel parenting, which means that this kind of coordination is not possible.  The reduction of conflict is paramount, so stick to what works best for your co-parenting relationship.

Be Supportive of Your Child: Be empathetic and supportive of your child’s feelings. The holiday season can be emotionally challenging, so ensure your child knows they can turn to you for comfort and understanding.

The Role of Mediation

When parents cannot agree on holiday parenting time, mediation can be a valuable resource. In Colorado, mediation is often recommended to help parents resolve disputes and reach a mutually acceptable solution. A trained mediator can assist in facilitating constructive discussions and finding common ground. Mediation can help reduce the need for court intervention and maintain a more amicable co-parenting relationship.  If you are aware of potential upcoming conflicts over the holidays, establish an understanding of the conflict early and mediate long before flights or travel arrangements need to be made.  The Court system cannot accommodate last-minute scheduling conflicts 99% of the time.

Key Considerations for Parents

As you navigate parenting time around the holidays post-divorce in Colorado, it’s essential to keep certain key considerations in mind:

Legal Framework: Familiarize yourself with Colorado’s legal framework for parenting time and the specific provisions in your parenting plan related to holidays.

Child’s Age and Needs: Tailor your holiday arrangements to your child’s age and developmental stage. Younger children may require more structure and predictability, while older children may appreciate more input into the schedule.  Regardless of age and developmental stage, the actual child’s individual needs should be the focus.  Some children are much more adaptive and resilient while other children suffer terribly with new change.

Travel and Logistics: If one parent lives a considerable distance away, it’s important to plan for travel logistics and associated costs during the holiday season.  These plans should be made well in advance of the actual parenting time to avoid conflict and misunderstandings wherever possible.

Flexibility: Be prepared for unexpected changes and unforeseen circumstances. Flexibility is crucial when navigating holiday parenting time.  Whenever possible, consider compromises and small variations to the Court-ordered parenting time if it serves your child’s best interests.


Navigating parenting time around the holidays post-divorce in Colorado can be a complex process, but with the right mindset, effective communication, and a focus on your child’s well-being, it is possible to create positive holiday experiences. Legal guidelines, common approaches to holiday parenting time, and the option of mediation are all resources that can help divorced parents successfully co-parent during this special time of year. By working together and prioritizing the best interests of your child, you can make the holiday season a joyful and memorable time for your family, even after divorce.

Navigating the Legal Waters: A Guide to Choosing the Right Lawyer for Your Case


When legal issues arise, finding the right lawyer can make all the difference in the world. Whether you’re facing a personal injury, involved in a business dispute, or navigating the complexities of family law, the expertise and dedication of your attorney can significantly impact the outcome of your case. However, with a plethora of legal professionals available, choosing the right lawyer can be a daunting task. This article aims to guide you through the process of selecting a lawyer who is the best fit for your specific needs.

1. Define Your Needs:

The first step in choosing a good lawyer is to clearly define your needs. Different legal issues require different areas of expertise. Are you dealing with a criminal matter, a personal injury case, a family dispute, or a business-related problem? Understanding the nature of your legal issue will help narrow down the pool of potential lawyers and ensure you find someone with the right specialization.

2. Research Potential Candidates:

Once you’ve identified the type of lawyer you need, it’s time to research potential candidates. Start by seeking recommendations from friends, family, or colleagues who have had similar legal experiences. Online resources, legal directories, and bar association websites can also provide valuable information about lawyers in your area.

3. Check Qualifications and Experience:

When evaluating potential lawyers, it’s essential to check their qualifications and experience. Confirm that the lawyer is licensed to practice in your jurisdiction and is a member of the relevant bar association. Additionally, inquire about their experience in handling cases similar to yours. A lawyer with a proven track record in a specific area of law is more likely to provide effective representation.

4. Assess Reputation and Reviews:

A lawyer’s reputation is a crucial factor in the selection process. Look for reviews and testimonials from previous clients. Online platforms, such as legal directories, social media, and review websites, can offer insights into a lawyer’s reputation and the quality of their services. Pay attention to any patterns or consistent feedback, positive or negative.

5. Consider Communication and Accessibility:

Effective communication is key to a successful attorney-client relationship. When choosing a lawyer, consider their communication style, responsiveness, and accessibility. A good lawyer should be able to explain legal concepts in a way that you understand and promptly respond to your inquiries. Accessibility is also vital; you want a lawyer who is available when you need them.

6. Evaluate Fee Structures:

Understanding the lawyer’s fee structure is crucial to avoiding surprises down the road. Different lawyers may charge fees in various ways, such as hourly rates, flat fees, or contingency fees. Discuss the fee arrangement upfront and ensure you have a clear understanding of how and when you will be billed. Transparency regarding costs is essential for a healthy attorney-client relationship.

7. Schedule Initial Consultations:

Once you have a shortlist of potential candidates, schedule initial consultations. Most lawyers offer free or low-cost consultations to discuss the specifics of your case. Take advantage of this opportunity to assess the lawyer’s demeanor, ask relevant questions, and gauge their interest in your case. Pay attention to whether they listen actively and provide thoughtful responses.

8. Ask the Right Questions:

During the initial consultation, ask questions that will help you assess the lawyer’s suitability for your case. Inquire about their experience with similar cases, their strategy for handling your specific legal issue, and the potential outcomes they foresee. Additionally, discuss potential challenges and risks associated with your case. A good lawyer will be honest and transparent about these aspects.

9. Trust Your Instincts:

Ultimately, trust your instincts when choosing a lawyer. Consider how comfortable you feel with the attorney and whether you believe they genuinely have your best interests at heart. The attorney-client relationship is built on trust, so it’s crucial to choose a lawyer with whom you feel confident and comfortable working closely.


Choosing the right lawyer is a critical step in navigating the legal system effectively. By defining your needs, researching potential candidates, assessing qualifications and reputation, considering communication and accessibility, evaluating fee structures, scheduling consultations, asking the right questions, and trusting your instincts, you can increase the likelihood of finding a lawyer who will provide skilled and dedicated representation for your case. Remember, the right lawyer can make a significant impact on the outcome of your legal matter, so take the time to make an informed decision.

Co-Parenting with a Narcissist

Co-parenting is often hailed as a challenging yet essential aspect of separated or divorced couples raising children together. However, when one parent exhibits narcissistic traits, the journey becomes exponentially more complicated. Narcissistic individuals, characterized by an excessive need for admiration and a lack of empathy, can pose unique challenges in the co-parenting dynamic. This article delves into the complexities of co-parenting with a narcissist, offering insights and strategies for navigating this challenging terrain.

Understanding Narcissism:

To effectively co-parent with a narcissist, it is crucial to first understand the nature of narcissistic personality traits. Narcissists often display an exaggerated sense of self-importance, a preoccupation with fantasies of unlimited success, a belief in their unique brilliance, and a lack of empathy for others. These characteristics can manifest in various ways, impacting their ability to engage in healthy co-parenting.

Challenges of Co-Parenting with a Narcissist:

  1. Lack of Empathy: Narcissists struggle to empathize with others, making it challenging for them to understand the emotional needs of their co-parent or, more importantly, the needs of their children. This lack of empathy can result in difficulties in effective communication and decision-making.
  2. Control and Manipulation: Narcissists often seek to maintain control and manipulate situations to align with their desires. In a co-parenting relationship, this can lead to power struggles, attempts to undermine the other parent, and a general lack of cooperation.
  3. Parental Alienation: Narcissistic parents may engage in behaviors that alienate the children from the other parent. This can include speaking negatively about the co-parent, attempting to turn the children against them, or withholding access to the children as a form of punishment.

Strategies for Co-Parenting with a Narcissist:

  1. Establish Boundaries: Set clear and firm boundaries with the narcissistic co-parent. Clearly define responsibilities, expectations, and communication protocols. Stick to the established boundaries to avoid manipulation and power struggles.
  2. Effective Communication: Keep communication with the narcissistic co-parent focused on the children. Stick to essential topics related to parenting, and avoid getting drawn into personal conflicts or emotional disputes. Utilize written communication when possible to maintain a record of interactions.
  3. Parallel Parenting: In cases where direct cooperation is challenging, consider implementing a parallel parenting approach. This involves disengaging from each other’s personal lives and making decisions independently while still prioritizing the well-being of the children.
  4. Utilize Third-Party Mediation: If direct communication is unproductive or volatile, enlist the help of a neutral third party, such as a mediator or therapist. Professional assistance can provide a structured and moderated environment for discussing and resolving conflicts.
  5. Focus on Co-Parenting Classes: Attend co-parenting classes or counseling sessions together. These programs can offer valuable insights into effective co-parenting strategies, helping both parents understand the importance of putting the children’s needs first.
  6. Document Everything: Maintain a record of all communications and interactions with the narcissistic co-parent. This documentation can be crucial in legal proceedings, should conflicts escalate to the point of requiring court intervention.
  7. Self-Care and Emotional Support: Co-parenting with a narcissist can be emotionally draining. Prioritize self-care and seek emotional support from friends, family, or a therapist. Establishing a strong support system is essential for maintaining mental and emotional well-being.

Legal Considerations:

In cases where the narcissistic co-parent’s behavior becomes abusive or significantly hinders the children’s well-being, it may be necessary to explore legal avenues. Consult with a family law attorney to understand the options available, such as modifying custody arrangements or seeking court-mandated interventions.


Co-parenting with a narcissist is undeniably challenging, but with careful planning, communication strategies, and a focus on the well-being of the children, it is possible to navigate this complex terrain. Recognizing the unique challenges posed by a narcissistic co-parent and implementing effective coping strategies can contribute to a healthier co-parenting dynamic. While the road may be difficult, the ultimate goal remains the same: to provide a stable and nurturing environment for the children despite the challenges posed by a narcissistic ex-partner.

High-Income Earners in Colorado Family Law: Navigating Maintenance

Colorado family law, like many other jurisdictions, has provisions in place for determining spousal maintenance, commonly referred to as alimony. Maintenance serves as a financial support mechanism for the lower-earning spouse during and after divorce. For high-income earners in Colorado, the complexities of determining maintenance can be especially challenging. This article aims to explore the intricacies of maintenance for high-income individuals in Colorado, shedding light on the factors, calculations, and strategies involved.

Understanding Maintenance in Colorado

Maintenance, as defined by Colorado law, is a financial payment from one spouse to the other that provides support to the lower-earning or non-earning spouse during and after a divorce. The primary goal of maintenance is to help the receiving spouse maintain a standard of living that is reasonably close to what they enjoyed during the marriage.

Factors Influencing Maintenance

In Colorado, maintenance determinations are not one-size-fits-all. Courts consider several factors when deciding whether maintenance should be awarded and, if so, the amount and duration of the award. Some of the key factors include:

Income Disparity: The most crucial factor is the income difference between the spouses. For high-income earners, this can be significant, and it often plays a decisive role in the maintenance calculation.

Duration of the Marriage: The length of the marriage is another essential factor. Longer marriages may result in longer maintenance awards.

Standard of Living: The court considers the standard of living established during the marriage. This can include monthly spending habits, cost and frequency of vacations, and the general financial status quo.  For high-income individuals, maintaining this standard may require substantial maintenance payments.

Financial Resources: The financial resources, assets, and debts of each spouse are taken into account. High-income individuals may have complex financial portfolios that impact maintenance determinations and could include the history of bonuses, dividends, trust payments, along with income earned, especially over the past three years.

Child Custody Arrangements: The presence and custody arrangements of minor children can also influence maintenance decisions, as they may impact the financial circumstances and needs of both spouses.

Education and Employment Prospects: The court considers the educational and employment prospects of each spouse. High-income earners may face unique challenges, such as business ownership or complex income structures.  Business owners can face particular difficulties as the value of the business as an asset is often calculated alongside the net income the business generates.  

Maintenance Calculation in Colorado

Colorado provides guidelines for calculating maintenance, which include a formula for determining the amount and duration of the award. However, these guidelines are not binding, and courts have the discretion to deviate from them when necessary. For high-income earners, deviation from the guidelines is common due to the complexities of their financial situations.

Amount: The formula for calculating the amount of maintenance in Colorado is relatively straightforward: 40% of the higher-earning spouse’s gross income minus 50% of the lower-earning spouse’s gross income. High-income individuals might find this formula inadequate to address their unique financial circumstances.

Duration: The duration of maintenance is also subject to calculation based on the length of the marriage. However, courts can deviate from the standard guidelines, especially in cases involving high-income earners, long-term marriages, or other exceptional circumstances.

Challenges for High-Income Earners

High-income earners face unique challenges when it comes to maintenance in Colorado family law. Some of the primary challenges include:

Complex Income Structures: High-income individuals often have income derived from multiple sources, such as investments, businesses, partnerships, and more. Determining the true income for maintenance calculations can be complex.

Tax Implications: The tax implications of maintenance are important to consider, especially for high-income earners. Recent changes in federal tax laws have impacted the tax treatment of maintenance payments, which can significantly affect the financial outcome for both spouses.

Lifestyle Expectations: High-income couples often maintain a certain lifestyle during their marriage, which can be challenging to sustain after a divorce. Courts must balance the reasonable needs of the recipient spouse with the financial capacity of the payor spouse.

Legal Strategies: High-income individuals should seek the guidance of experienced family law attorneys who understand the complexities of maintenance calculations and can develop effective legal strategies to protect their interests.

Strategies for High-Income Earners

Navigating maintenance for high-income earners in Colorado family law requires careful planning and effective strategies. Here are some strategies to consider:

Accurate Financial Disclosure: High-income earners should provide complete and accurate financial disclosures. This is essential for determining the true income and financial situation of each spouse.

Negotiation and Settlement: Consider out-of-court negotiations and settlements to maintain control over the outcome. This can lead to more customized agreements that address specific needs and concerns.

Prenuptial and Postnuptial Agreements: Entering into prenuptial or postnuptial agreements can help clarify maintenance expectations in the event of divorce. These agreements can provide greater certainty for high-income individuals.

Mediation and Collaborative Divorce: These alternative dispute resolution methods can be less adversarial and more collaborative, allowing high-income couples to work together to find mutually beneficial solutions.

Expert Witnesses: High-income earners should consider hiring financial experts, such as forensic accountants or valuation experts, to ensure the accurate assessment of complex financial matters.


Maintenance for high-income earners in Colorado family law presents unique challenges and opportunities. The determination of maintenance can significantly impact the financial future of both spouses, making it essential for high-income individuals to navigate the process carefully. Seeking experienced legal counsel and employing effective strategies are critical to achieving a fair and equitable resolution. By understanding the complexities of maintenance calculations and considering the factors involved, high-income earners can better protect their financial interests during divorce proceedings in Colorado.

Know the Difference Between Mediation and Arbitration? You Should.

August 31, 2023

James Townsend

Have you ever wondered about the difference between mediation and arbitration? Aren’t they the same thing? No, they are not. They are two distinct paths in the process of alternative dispute resolution, and understanding the pros and cons of each can help you make a better decision regarding which path to choose for your case.

Mediation vs. Arbitration

In simple terms, mediation is collaborative while arbitration is adjudicative. Mediation is like cooking a meal together; both parties have a say in the recipe. Arbitration, on the other hand, is akin to a cooking show with a judge that tastes each dish and decides a winner.

A Real-World Example

Picture this: a business partnership gone awry. In mediation, both parties work with a mediator to hash out differences and decide mutually beneficial terms. No one is forced into a decision. In arbitration, on the other hand, an arbitrator listens to both sides and makes a binding decision. A mediator in this case may facilitate a discussion to amicably dissolve or even save the sinking partnership, while an arbitrator will decide on whose terms the partnership will be dissolved.

Your Path, Your Choice

Choosing between mediation and arbitration should not be a coin toss. It should be a calculated decision because it can affect the outcome and your level of involvement in it. If you value collaboration and flexibility, mediation is your best bet. Want a swift, decisive outcome? Consider opting for arbitration. Just remember, the choice you make today sets the tone for your dispute resolution journey tomorrow.

Disclaimer: The information provided in this article is intended for general informational purposes only and should not be construed as legal advice. Laws and guidelines are subject to change, and the specifics of your situation can affect how the law applies to you. For legal advice pertaining to your situation, please consult with a qualified attorney.

Modifying Spousal Maintenance in Colorado

August 31, 2023

James Townsend

In Colorado, the modification of spousal maintenance (also known as alimony) is governed by statute, specifically C.R.S. § 14-10-122. Generally speaking, a court may modify a spousal maintenance award only if there has been a substantial and continuing change in circumstances that makes the terms unfair. Common examples of such changes may include:

  • Loss of employment or significant decrease in income
  • Substantial increase in income of either party
  • Retirement
  • Serious illness or disability
  • Remarriage or cohabitation of the recipient spouse

The party seeking the modification usually has the burden of proof to show that the change in circumstances warrants a modification. Typically, temporary changes, such as short-term job loss, might not be considered “continuing” and may not justify a modification. Additionally, it’s important to check the original divorce or separation agreement, as some couples include clauses that specify the conditions under which spousal maintenance can be modified or that make the maintenance “non-modifiable.”

Please note that this is a simplified overview, and legal standards can be complex. For legal advice tailored to your specific situation, it’s best to consult with an attorney experienced in Colorado family law.
Disclaimer: The content in this article is for informational purposes only and should not be construed as legal advice. Always consult with a qualified attorney for legal matters.